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Electronic Nautical Charts

Written by Buzatu Octavian.

An electronic navigational chart is an official database created by a national hydrographic office for use with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). An electronic chart must conform to standards stated in the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) Special Publication S-57 before it can be certified as an ENC. Only ENCs can be used within ECDIS to meet the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) performance standard for ECDIS. ENCs are available through Regional Electronic Navigational Chart Coordinating e (RENCs) and national electronic chart centers. Distributors like the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office then distribute these to chart agents. In July 2008, the first mandatory requirements for the use of ENC and ECDIS became international law. IHO Special Publication S-63 developed by the IHO Data Protection Security Working Group is used to commercially encrypt and digitally sign ENC data. Chart data is captured based on standards stated in IHO Special Publication S-57, and is displayed according to a display format stated in IHO Special Publication S-52 to ensure consistency of data rendering between different systems. IMO proposed compulsory carriage of ECDIS and ENCs on high speed crafts from 1 July 2008 onwards for all new crafts, and from 1 July 2010 onwards for existing crafts. More you can find on  http://www.iho.int ENC & ECDIS Section.

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Law of the Sea

Written by Buzatu Octavian.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources. The Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced four 1958 treaties. UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to sign the treaty. As of October 2012, 164 countries and the European Union have joined in the Convention. However, it is uncertain as to what extent the Convention codifies customary international law. While the Secretary General of the United Nations receives instruments of ratification and accession and the UN provides support for meetings of states party to the Convention, the UN has no direct operational role in the implementation of the Convention. There is, however, a role played by organizations such as the International Maritime Organization, the International Whaling Commission, and the International Seabed Authority (the latter being established by the UN Convention).  http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/UNCLOS-TOC.htm

 

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